For the first time in the Indian Media, it is being reported : HINDU AMERICAN FOUNDATION is more “Hindu” than ‘Hindu(s/ism) in Hindu-birthland India as they proudly say there “Hum Garv Se Kaha Raje Hain, Garv Se Palan Kar Rahe Hain, Hum Hindu-follower Hain, Kooch Hee Samay Mein Hum Hindu Ho Bhee Jaayenge”. HIF (Hindu American Foundation)    operatesfrom  Hindu American Foundation,
910 Seventeenth St. NW, Suite 316A,
Washington, DC 20006. Their phone is : Phone: (202) 223-8222, Fax: (202) 223-8004.
  Our Vision

To sustain a leading institution of Hindu American advocacy for the promotion of human dignity, mutual respect, and pluralism.

Our Mission

The Hindu American Foundation (HAF) is an advocacy organization for the Hindu American community. The Foundation educates the public about Hinduism, speaks out about issues affecting Hindus worldwide, and builds bridges with institutions and individuals whose work aligns with HAF’s objectives. HAF focuses on human and civil rights, public policy, media, academia, and interfaith relations. Through its advocacy efforts, HAF seeks to cultivate leaders and empower future generations of Hindu Americans.

The Hindu American Foundation is not affiliated with any religious or political organizations or entities. HAF seeks to serve Hindu Americans across all sampradayas (Hindu religious traditions) regardless of race, color, national origin, citizenship, caste, gender, sexual orientation, age and/or disability.  

Download HAF’s introductory brochure for a glimpse of the Foundation’s advocacy efforts and success since its inception in 2003. To learn even more about HAF’s advocacy efforts, read Hindu American Political Advocacy (pdf download), published in Harvard’s Swadharma magazine.

Our Objectives & Goals

  • Objective 1: Promote pluralism and mutual respect amongst peoples
  • Objective 2: Ensure an accurate understanding of Hinduism as a living tradition
  • Objective 3: Highlight and secure the human rights of Hindus around the globe
  • Objective 4: Represent the Hindu American community’s needs and interests to institutions influencing and making policy
  • Objective 5: Solve contemporary problems by applying Hindu philosophy
  • Objective 6: Build a sustainable institution that will remain a pre-eminent advocate for Dharma communities for future generations

Our Guiding Principles

Satya. Be truthful. We pride ourselves in offering programming and information with accuracy, integrity, and honesty.

Ahimsa. Be non-harmful. We aspire to work and communicate fairly and respectfully.

Viveka. Be discerning. We approach our work through careful contemplation, reason, and consensus building.

Nutana. Be innovative. We aspire to keep our work and approach relevant to our constituents by being creative, innovative, and flexible.

Sadbhavana. Promote collaboration. We seek out partnerships with other individuals and organizations to forward our objectives.

Kutumbakam. Build a positive team and family spirit. We value and respect each other as individuals, work well together as a team, and respect each other’s work/life balance.

Utsaah. Be passionate. We are passionate about Hindu Dharma, the global community, and our work

Rishi Bhutada is the Vice President of Finance at Star Pipe Products in Houston, TX and holds an MBA from Rice University and a Bachelor’s of Science in Economics from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. His efforts focus on textbook reform, Hindu political awareness, and intrafaith advocacy training, as well as strategic planning for the Foundation. Mr. Bhutada also serves as the primary writer for the HAF blog. He won the India House Houston’s Young Leader of the Year Award in 2013.

Padma Kuppa, holds a bachelors degree in engineering and is an experienced IT analyst. She is a co-founder of Troy-area Interfaith Group and the Outreach Committee at the Bharatiya Temple of Metropolitan Detroit, and is a Planning Commissioner for Troy, MI. She has been involved with other Hindu initiatives, such as the Hindu Mandir Executives’ Conference, Hindu American Seva Charities and the Hindu American Chaplaincy Initiative. She is a Board member of the Michigan Roundtable for Diversity and Inclusion, an Advisory Board member of the women’s interfaith organization, WISDOM, and blogs at patheos.com. She has received multiple awards and congressional recognition for her community leadership, including induction into the MI-India Hall of Fame (2015). Her focus at the Foundation is on the Michigan HAF Chapter and inter-religious cooperation.


Mihir Meghani, M.D., an Emergency Physician, is a co-founder of HAF. He has provided medical care in India after the 2001 earthquake, in NY after 9/11, and in Sri Lanka after the 2004 tsunami with The Permanente Medical Group. A member of the US Department of Homeland Security’s Disaster Medical Assistance Team and former member of the East Bay Regional Parks Advisory Committee, Dr. Meghani has received numerous awards for his community service. He also serves on the Board of the Silicon Valley Interreligious Council.


Aseem Shukla, M.D. is the Director of Minimally Invasive Surgery in the Department of Urology at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA and is an Associate Professor of Surgery (Urology) at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Dr. Shukla is co-founder of HAF and focuses on developing an articulate voice for Hinduism in the media. His contributions to the On Faith section of the Washington Post/Newsweek can be found by clicking here. Dr. Shukla is active in developing pediatric urology as a discipline globally and has volunteered frequently teaching surgical and medical workshops as a project of Hindu American Physicians in Seva.

Suhag Shukla, Esq., Executive Director and Legal Counsel, is a co-founder of HAF. She holds a BA in Religion and JD from the University of Florida. As Legal Counsel, Ms. Shukla has helped launch the Foundation as a leading voice for religious freedom. She is tasked with cultivating strategic intrafaith and interfaith relationships, the latter for which she seeks areas of shared interests to advance HAF’s objectives in the realms of church/state advocacy and issue-specific dialogue. She has been instrumental in the development of a broad range of educational materials and position papers, is on the editorial team of HAF’s groundbreaking human rights report, and blogs for the Huffington Post. Ms. Shukla is actively involved with Chinmaya Mission and serves on the Board of the Bhutanese American Organization of Philadelphia. Previously she served on the Boards of the Nirvana Center, a Bhutanese community resettlement center, as well as the YWCA of Minneapolis, and was a member of the Planning Committee of the St. Paul Interfaith Network. Nationally, she serves on religious advisory committees for the Council on Foreign Relations, the Humane Society of the United States, and the Department of Homeland Security.


Sheetal Shah, Senior Director based in New York City, holds a Masters degree from the London School of Economics and a Bachelors in Computer Science from Georgia Tech. She focuses on developing HAF’s public policy strategy, communicating with and expanding HAF’s membership base, fundraising and finances, and building the HAF brand through various means including development of the Foundation’s website. She was instrumental in formulating the Foundation’s Take Back Yoga campaign and manages the Hindu American Congressional Internship. A former member of the Foundation’s Executive Council, Ms. Shah is well-experienced in HAF’s human rights campaign and community outreach efforts. She practices Ashtanga yoga at Ashtanga Yoga New York and serves on the Board of the Broome Street Ganesha Temple.

Samir Kalra, Esq., Senior Director and Senior Human Rights Fellow based in the Bay Area, CA, holds a JD from Santa Clara University School of Law. Mr. Kalra leads the Foundation’s human rights advocacy efforts and has served as a panelist at the National Press Club and multiple Congressional briefings on human rights and religious freedom in South Asia. In January 2013, Mr. Kalra conducted a one week human rights fact finding mission at refugee camps in Jodhpur, India that house Pakistani Hindu refugees. He authored the Foreword for a book on Bangladesh entitled A Quiet Case of Ethnic Cleansing: The Murder of Bangladesh’s Hindus. Mr. Kalra authored formal comments to the FBI’s Advisory Policy Board to support the addition of an anti-Hindu hate crime category to the FBI’s data collection program, and he submitted on the record testimony to a Senate Judiciary Subcommittee Hearing in 2012 on “Hate Crimes and the Threat of Domestic Extremism.” He serves as a member of Rep. Eric Swalwell’s (D-CA) Immigration Advisory Committee and is a member of the American Society of International Law and the South Asian Bar Association. He is also an Advisor/Contributor at The Interfaith Observer Journal and is involved with the Indian Subcontinent Partition Documentation Project. 


Seetha Aiyar, Director of Philanthropic Partnerships is based in Philadelphia, PA. She holds a BS in Accounting from Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and an MBA from the CWRU Weatherhead School of Management. Seetha has broad experience in community  order cheap tablets online outreach, directing nationally-ranked hospital operations and charitable development in the non-profit and for-profit sectors. Singing since the age of 5, she currently volunteers as a Soprano with Vox Ama DeusSeetha isclassically trained in Carnatic, Western Music, Opera, Piano and Clarinet. Seetha has performed the national anthem at NBA games and released a CD to benefit Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital. She enjoys tennis, yoga and volunteering for Berwyn-Paoli Little League and the Gurukul Academy King of Prussia.


Murali Balaji, Ph.D. is HAF’s Director of Education and Curriculum Reform. A Fulbright Specialist and former journalist, he has taught at Temple University, Penn State University, and Lincoln University, where he served as Chair of the Department of Mass Communications, overseeing assessment and curriculum building efforts. A longtime advocate of minority issues, Mr. Balaji is the author of several books and the co-editor of the seminal anthologies Desi Rap (2008) and Global Masculinities and Manhood (2011). A native of the Philadelphia area, Mr. Balaji earned his B.A. in journalism from the University of Minnesota and his doctorate in Mass Communication from Penn State.


SriVani Ganti, Director of Member and Chapter Relations based in Washington, D.C, holds a Masters in Health Communications from Boston University and a Bachelors of Science in Biology from Northeastern University. At HAF, her primary focus is on building and strengthening member relations as well as developing local HAF chapters across the country. Ms. Ganti is active within her Hindu community as a member of Chinmaya Yuva Kendras and a committee member of the annual Swami Vivekananda Family Camp, held in Massachusetts. Ms. Ganti is a student of Carnatic classical music, playing the Veena since the age of 9.


Jay Kansara, Director of Government Relations based in Washington, DC, holds a BA in Government and Asian Studies from the University of Texas at Austin. He develops and maintains strategic relationship with leaders in public policy and in various fora, including congressional briefings, interfaith and human rights roundtable meetings, and official government functions. He also serves as the Foundation’s liaison to the Hindu community in the greater D.C. area. Mr. Kansara is an active volunteer at his local Hindu temple and is a student of Indian classical and folk music traditions.


Harsh Voruganti, Esq., Associate Director of Public Policy based in Washington, D.C., holds a JD from the George Washington University Law School. Mr. Voruganti is responsible for researching and developing the Foundation’s domestic policy priorities. He also works with local chapters to assess state-level legislative priorities and builds relationships with coalition partners, think tanks, and journalists. Before joining HAF’s staff, Mr. Voruganti worked as a fellow at the Program on Freedom of Religion and Belief at the American Civil Liberties Union. Mr. Voruganti also serves on the Board of the D.C. Lawyers’ Chapter of the American Constitution Society and is a designated Next Generation Leader with the organization. Mr. Voruganti is a student of both Hindustani and Carnatic music.


Zoila McDowell is the Office Manager based in the Foundation’s Washington DC office. Ms. McDowell holds a Bachelors degree in Marketing and a Masters in French.


Executive Council

Pooja Deopura is a software professional in Silicon Valley. She holds a Bachelor’s in Computer Science from the University of California, Davis, where she was also a campus news writer for the California Aggie. Her work with the Foundation focuses on membership development campaigns and student outreach. She also assists in publicizing HAF’s advocacy work at the local level.




Pawan Deshpande, CEO of Curata, Inc., holds a Bachelor’s in Computer Science and a Master’s of Engineering from MIT. His role at HAF currently focuses on human rights and caste-based discrimination. As one of the senior most Executive Council members, Mr. Deshpande has been involved in launching the Foundation’s internship program and was the Foundation’s key technology advisory.



Sachi Edwards is a doctoral student at the University of Maryland researching Peace Education and Interfaith Dialogue in the higher education setting. She holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Legal Studies and a certificate in Alternative Dispute Resolution from California State University, Chico, and a Master’s Degree in Religion from the University of Hawaii, Manoa. Her focus at the Foundation is largely centered around environmental and animal welfare efforts. Ms. Edwards is also the Coordinator of Outreach and Volunteer Programs for Sahayog Foundation.


Nikhil Joshi, Esq., a labor and employment attorney and partner at a Florida based law firm, is a co-founder of HAF and holds a JD from the University of Florida. His efforts for the Foundation have largely centered on administrative, legal, and operational matters.





Raman Khanna, M.D., is a hospitalist and assistant professor of clinical medicine at UCSF, where he studies Health Information Technology. He studied religion as an undergraduate at Northwestern University, where he also completed his medical degree and residency training. He has been an active member of HAF’s Northern CA Working Group and is currently focused on academic outreach and data analysis.



Nicholas O’Connell is a Masters student at the South Asia Institute at Columbia University and blogs regularly at Videshi Sutra. His research interests center around Bengali folk Hinduism, and the Bengal Renaissance. His efforts for the Foundation have centered on research for curriculum reform.


Kavita Pallod is a doctoral candidate at Rutgers University, studying clinical psychology. She holds a dual degree from the University of Texas at Austin in Psychology and Education. She is active in the Hindu community of Houston and serves on the steering committee for the Hindu Heritage Youth Camp. She is also the 2011 winner of the Hindus of Greater Houston’s Youth Leader award. Kavita’s work at HAF is focused on K-12 curricular issues.



Rajiv Pandit, M.D. is a board-certified head and neck surgeon, who serves as Clinical Instructor in the Dept. of Surgery at Methodist Dallas Medical Center, while practicing full-time at Dallas ENT – Head & Neck Surgery Center. He is also the director of the Dallas Sinus Institute.  A native of Kashmir, Dr. Pandit has been active in the leadership of various organizations that advocate for Hindus, and specifically the Hindus of Kashmir. He is the co-founder of HAF’s Dallas chapter, and his current focus is empowerment through education, specifically textbook reform and interfaith dialogue.


Vineet Sharma, M.D., a practicing Neuroradiologist, is Director of Imaging Services and President of the O’Connor Imaging Medical Group. He studied molecular biology at U.C. Berkeley and completed his Residency and Fellowship at Stanford University. He has been an active member of HAF’s Northern CA Working Group and is currently leading the Foundation’s government outreach at the state level and outreach to national policy institutes and think tanks.


Fred Stella is a commercial actor with extensive experience in TV, independent film, commercials, web media, and audiobooks. He began his spiritual search within the Hindu Dharma at the age of 15 and was initiated into his specific tradition almost 30 years ago.  He is the Pracharak for the West Michigan Hindu Temple. Sponsored by Seed the World and under the direction of Vivekananda Kendra, in 2005, Mr. Stella completed a 30 city lecture tour in India, joining the effort to promote indigenous culture and religion in areas facing the encroachment of Western influence. Fred is a regular speaker at the annual Hindu Mandir Executive Conference. He is president of Interfaith Dialogue Association and hosts its weekly radio program on Religion and Spirituality, Common Threads on local NPR affiliate, WGVU-FM. In 2012, Grand Rapids Mayor George Heartwell presented Fred with the city’s “Champion of Diversity Award” for his work in interfaith relations.


Swaminathan Venkataraman, Vice President – Senior Credit Officer, Global Project and Infrastructure Finance at Moody’s Investors Service, is HAF’s Director of India Strategic Relations. He focuses on strategic interactions with policy leaders, think tanks, and media in India. Formerly a Director at Standard & Poor’s in San Francisco, Mr. Venkataraman used to lead the Foundation’s interfaith efforts. Mr. Venkataraman was born and raised in India and earned a Bachelors in Technology from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras and an MBA from the Indian Institute of Management (IIM), Calcutta. 

Hinduism 101

  • Hinduism Basics
  • Hindu Demographics
  • Recommended Reading
  • Hinduism 2 Go
  • Hinduism 101: A Teacher’s Resource for Teaching about Hinduism

Hinduism Basics


Oneness and Pluralism: The Essence of Hinduism

Hinduism, or Sanatana Dharma (Eternal Way), is the world’s oldest living religion. It is a richly diverse family of philosophies, traditions, and practices that have been followed primarily throughout Asia for thousands of years. Today, Hinduism is a global religion with adherents living on every continent, and comprising majorities in three countries: India, Nepal, and Mauritius.

Most traditions within Hinduism share certain distinctive, core beliefs despite the absence of an identifiable beginning in history, single founder, central religious establishment, or sole authoritative scripture. Two of these core beliefs are that of the oneness of existence and pluralism.

All beings, from the smallest organism to man, are considered manifestations of the Divine or reflections of the Divine’s qualities, depending upon the school of thought. Because of this shared divinity, Hinduism views the universe as a family or, in Sanskrit, Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam. Hinduism also advances the concept of the equality of all mankind, as expressed in the ancient hymn:

Ajyesthaso akanishthaso ete sambhrataro vahaduhu saubhagaya
No one is superior, none inferior. All are brothers marching forward to prosperity.

Mankind, in turn, carries a special responsibility to honor the underlying equality of people and unity of existence because it is believed to be the most spiritually evolved. The popularly recited Hindu invocation demonstrates this concern for universal kinship and well-being:

Om sarve bhavantu sukhinah. Sarve santu niraamayaah.
Sarve bhadraani pashyantu. Maa kaschid dukhbhaag bhavet.

May all beings be happy. May all beings be healthy.
May all beings experience prosperity. May none in the world suffer.

Against the backdrop of this understanding of equality and unity, the Hindu world has been able to embrace the reality of diversity through its philosophy of pluralism. Every being, with their varying likes and dislikes, their unique personalities, and their different cultures, not only connect with one another in their own unique ways, but connect with the Divine in their own individual ways.

As such, Hindus believe that the Divine:

  • Manifests in different forms
  • Can be worshipped by various means
  • Speaks to each individual in different ways to enable them to not only believe in God, but know God

This embrace of pluralism has contributed to the incredible spiritual and religious freedom one witnesses within Hinduism — in its many deity traditions, paths or yogas, schools of thoughts, saint traditions, ways of worship, etc.

The worldview of pluralism is not just applicable to Hindus, but to all members of this universal family. Accordingly, Hinduism acknowledges not just the possibility, but also the existence of more than one path (religion) or way of relating to Truth (God). This true, unadulterated pluralism is captured in the ancient Sanskrit hymn:

Ekam sat vipraha bahudha vadanti
Truth is one, the wise call it by many names.

In relating to other religions, Hinduism asserts that it is not only harmful, but inherently flawed to insist that one’s own path towards God is the only true and meaningful path. Based on this firm pluralistic belief, Hinduism has never sanctioned proselytization. Further, over their vast history, Hindus have never invaded another land in the name of religion. It is also clear that, for centuries in Southeast Asia, it has been this Hindu brand of absolute pluralism, which has provided the ideal environment for peaceful coexistence and prosperity for at least eight major religions, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Sikhism, Jainism and Zoroastrian.

Six Major Schools of Thought in Hinduism

Over the ages, various schools of theology developed in Hinduism through a dynamic tradition of philosophical inquiry and debate. From timeless and universal questions such as the purpose of life to the relationship between humans and the Divine emerged many schools of thoughts or darshanas. Darshana literally means “seeing” and relates to the different ways of “seeing” the Divine and attaining moksha or liberation from the cycle of birth and rebirth. Six darshanas are recognized as the most influential:

  • Vaisheshika
  • Nyaya
  • Sankhya
  • Mimamsa or Purva Mimamsa
  • Yoga
  • Vedanta, including Advaita, Dvaita, and Vishishtadvaita

For a more detailed explanation of the six darshanas, see our Q&A Booklet on Hinduism: Short Answers to Real Questions.

Key Hindu Scriptures

Hinduism is rich in scripture and includes an extensive collection of ancient religious writings. These sacred texts are classified broadly into two categories: Shruti and Smriti. The word Shruti literally means “heard” and consists of what Hindus believe to be eternal truths akin to natural law. These texts are revered as “revealed” or divine in origin and are believed to contain the foundational truths of Hinduism.

The second category of scripture is Smriti, which literally means “memory,” and is distinguished from Shruti in terms of its origin. Teachings in Smriti texts are meant to be remind adherents the eternal truths of Shruti, and read and interpreted in light of changing circumstances over kala (time), desha (land), and guna (personality).

Some of the most well known texts include:


 Vedas: The word Veda means “knowledge”. There are four Vedas: Rig, Sama, Yajur and Atharva, of which the Rig Veda is the oldest.

 Upanishads: These texts, numbering over 100, contain an extensive exploration of the methods of understanding the self, God, and the nature of the world.


 Upavedas: The Upavedas consist of four main texts, including:

  • Ayurveda – science of health and life
  • Dhanurveda – science of warfare
  • Gandharvaveda – the study of aesthetics, and delineates art forms
  • Arthashastra – guidance on public administration, governance, economy, and politics

 Puranas: Stories in the Puranas translate the meanings of the ancient Shruti scriptures and teach them to the masses by explaining the teachings of the Vedas and Upanishads through stories and parables. There are 18 major Puranas (Mahapuranas) and many minor ones (upapuranas).

 Ramayana: This popular epic tells the life story the noble prince named Rama, whom Hindus believe to be an incarnation of the Divine. Prince Rama suffers year of exile and many hardships while destroying powerful demons before returning to rule his kingdom. There are numerous versions of the Ramayana, of which the most well-known are those by the original author Sage Valmiki and the poet-saint Tulsidas.

 Mahabharata: With over 100,000 verses, the Mahabharata is a historical epic, and is the longest poem the world has known. Based on an extended conflict between two branches of the Kaurava family, the Mahabharata is a trove of stories and discourses on the practice of Dharma, including the importance of truth, justice, self sacrifice, and the upholding of Dharma, the need for complete devotion to God, and the ultimate futility of war

 Bhagavad Gita: The Bhagavad Gita is a primary scripture for Hindus. Although it is a tiny part of the Mahabharata and technically classed as a Smriti text, it is traditionally accorded the rank of an Upanishad. It is meant to help one understand that upholding dharma can be challenging, especially in situations where there is not a clear right or wrong.

 Agama Shastras: Ancient and numerous, including many that have been lost over the centuries, these texts deal with practical aspects of devotion and worship, including personal and temple rituals and practices.

For more information on Hindu scriptures,  order inexpensively tablets no prescription – http://parentachild.org/order-inexpensively-tablets-no-prescription/ click here to visit our Hinduism 101 Teacher’s Training Primer.

Hinduism as an Inspiration for Innovation and Discovery:
Hindu Contributions from Antiquity

Contrary to popular perceptions that Hinduism is a mystical religion exclusively concerned with transcendental concepts of spiritual practice, Hinduism has been a wellspring for vast contributions to global civilization spanning more than five millennia. As a religious practice aspiring to understand the eternal mysteries of existence, Hinduism has never been a regressive or closed dogma satisfied with historicentric interpretations of one holy book. Indeed, Hindus have explored the mysteries of science, mathematics and astronomy to revel in the glory of Creation. Epochal advances in metallurgy, medicine, grammar, music and dance, among other disciplines, came from early practitioners of Hinduism and its scripture is replete with practical and esoteric observations. Some perennial contributions of Hinduism:

Education The first university in Takshashila in 700 B.C.E.
Mathematics The concept of zero (200 A.D.). The modern numerical and decimal system (300 B.C.E). The value of pi (?) (497 A.D.). Area of a triangle (476 A.D.). Quadratic Equation (991 A.D.). Trigonometry.
Astronomy Concept of planets in the solar system circling the sun (500 A.D.). Earth as round, rotating on axis and gravity as a force of attraction by the earth (500 A.D.). Concept of Time as 365 days in a year.
Metallurgy Steel, iron, gold discovered in archaeological excavations dating to 3000 B.C.E.
Medicine Ayur Veda, a system of allopathic and holistic medicine and now a subject of rediscovery, originated 1000 B.C.E. Detailed text called the Charaka Samhita includes anatomy, physiology and various treatments using various plants, fruits and herbs.
Surgery The Sushruta Samhita (600 B.C.E.) is considered the first detailed text with seminal descriptions of surgical procedures and instruments that, with modifications, are conceptually used today.
Literature Sanskrit developed as the most ancient systematic language in the world. The Ramayan (before 3000 B.C.E) and the 100,000 verses Mahabharata (300 B.C.E.) are venerable epics that continue to inspire Hindus today.
Arts Highly sophisticated Indian classical music finds its origins in the Sama Veda, one of the four original Vedas. The four classical dance forms of India find their origins and inspirations in Hindu religious tradition.
Yoga and Meditation These are, perhaps, the most widely-recognized spiritual contributions of Hinduism to humanity. Hatha Yoga, the widely practiced system of cleansing exercises, is only one of the Yoga disciplines that encourage spiritual, physical and intellectual advancement. Meditation, a process that calms and focuses the psyche, is integral to yogic practice and recognized with yoga for its salutary effects on personal well-being.

As continuous invasions rocked the Indian subcontinent—from Alexander the Great and the heinous barbarisms of the Islamic conquests to the most recently repulsed British colonial rule—the last millennia saw the nadir of Hindu innovation. Yet the 20th and 21st century are marking a resurgence as Hindus in the diaspora, especially in the United States, strengthen their adopted lands with contributions in technology, medicine, engineering, fashion and the arts among many other disciplines.


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